Anti Aging, refers to attempts to slow down or reverse the processes of aging to extend both the maximum and average lifespan. Researchers believe that future breakthroughs in tissue rejuvenation with stem cells, molecular repair, andorgan replacement will enable humans to have indefinite lifespans through complete rejuvenation to a youthful condition.
During the process of aging, an organism accumulates damage to macromolecules, cells, tissues and organs. The maximum life span for humans is in excess of 120 years, whereas the maximum lifespan of a mouse, commonly used as a model in research on aging, is about four years. Genetic differences between humans and mice that may account for these different aging rates include efficiency of DNA repair, types and quantities of antioxidant enzymes, and different rates of free radical production.
Average lifespan in a population is lowered by infant and child mortality, which are frequently linked to infectious diseases or nutrition problems. Later in life, vulnerability to accidents and age-related chronic disease such as cancer or cardiovascular disease play an increasing role in mortality. Extension of expected lifespan can often be achieved by good diet, exercise and avoidance of hazards such as smoking.
Maximum lifespan is determined by the rate of aging for a species inherent in its genes and by environmental factors. One widely recognized method of extending maximum lifespan in organisms such as nematodes is calorie restriction. Another technique used evolutionary pressure such as breeding from only older members.
Theoretically, extension of maximum lifespan could be achieved by reducing the rate of aging damage, by periodic replacement of damaged tissues, or bymolecular repair or rejuvenation of deteriorated cells and tissues.
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